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The Essential First Aid Course, Part 2: Managing Bleeding And Infection

How can you treat wounds in a disaster/emergency situation?

In the first part of our series on first aid, we talked about the proper method of assessing an unconscious individual and applying CPR as needed. We learned that the safety of the first aider is of utmost priority and should be considered first before any attempts at giving CPR are carried out.

In todays blog post Im going to share with you the proper ways of caring for different types of wounds. Wound care is another important skill that can help ward off infection and sepsis if someone is physically injured during a disaster.

What are the objectives of wound care?

All wound care techniques are ruled by 4 major objectives:

1. To reduce and completely stop bleeding whenever possible.

2. To reduce the incidence of bacterial/viral infection through proper cleaning of the wound.

3. To apply adequate dressing to the wound to protect it from further contamination and to increase the comfort of the victim/patient.

4. To initiate the natural healing of the wound and improve the function and/or mobility of the affected body part.

How can you control or stop bleeding?

Bleeding naturally occurs when blood vessels are damaged or torn.

All types of wounds (whether closed or open) bleed. If you scratch your skin because of an itch and the skin breaks, you may see a few rivulets of blood escape. This type of bleeding can easily be addressed through the application of minor pressure on the affected area.

However, there are instances when a large wound bleeds profusely and its difficult to staunch the flow of blood.

If a wound is large and deep, you will be dealing with innumerable damaged capillaries, arteries and veins all pouring out blood. Follow these guidelines in the event that youre faced with a wound that is bleeding heavily:

1. Apply Pressure Applying pressure on the bleeding area can help speed up the clotting process. Use a clean gauze or cloth to press down on the affected area. The secret is applying a consistent, heavy pressure on the wound. However, dont press down too hard as this can cause further injury to the skin.

2. Change the Persons Position Whenever possible, ask the patient to lie down to lower his blood pressure and heart rate. This will help slow down the blood flow. If your patient is anxious or afraid, you can expect a lot more blood as his heart is pumping twice as fast.

3. Elevate! If your patient is bleeding from his hands/arms/feet/legs, reposition the person so that the affected limb is elevated above the heart. This will help reduce the blood pressure in the affected area/s of the body.

4. Practice Layering There are situations when the size and depth of the wound will not allow the first aider to completely stop the bleeding. If direct pressure and additional gauze cant stop the bleeding, the wound may be too severe for first aid.

All you can safely do at this point would be to add additional layers of clean gauze to the first few layers to ensure that blood is absorbed readily. Do not attempt to remove the layer that is closest to the wound as this may undo the clotting that has already occurred in that area.

How can you protect a wound from infection?

Large, infected wounds can cause speedy tissue death and even gangrene in extreme cases.

Preventing infection is your next priority after youve staunched the bleeding of the wound. You can reduce the chances of wound infection by following these steps:

1. Inspect the wound at least once a day. Remove any foreign matter on the wound. If something is deeply embedded in the wound, do not try to remove it. Doing so may damage more tissue and cause complications (e.g. tetanus).

2. After inspection, apply a disinfectant such as povidone iodine or alcohol to disinfect the wound and the area surrounding it. Make sure that the wound is cleaned and disinfected at least once every 24 hours.

3. If gauze has been applied beforehand, carefully remove old gauze and replace with fresh gauze.

Old gauze can cause damage and may become a hotbed for bacterial infection if it is not replaced daily. Use nonstick gauzes and dressings as much as possible as these will not damage the surface of the wound when removed.

4. Always apply adequate bandaging so that the nonstick gauze will not move about or fall off. If you dont have medical bandage, use any long piece of cloth to keep all the gauze/s in place.

Which Vitamins Should Women Use And Why?



Vitamins are extremely vital nutrients for the body. They assist in several different processes and make sure that your body stays healthy. There is a very common misconception among people that certain vitamins are ‘only’ good for either men or women where in reality, all nutrients are extremely important for humans and help in carrying bodily process regardless of the gender.

Although both men and women can take all types of vitamins, there are certain that may be more beneficial to a certain gender than the other based on their daily activities. In this article, we have listed some of the vitamins which are relatively more important for women as opposed to men.

Vitamin B-Complex

Certain types from the Vitamin B family are extremely beneficial for women. Although all of them are excellent for the female body, some particular mentions include the Vitamin B-6 and B-12. The former, also called Pyridoxine, assists in healthy neural activity. Furthermore, it is a great source of energy, especially for the pregnant women as it helps in the faster conversion of food into energy. Though it should be noted that excessive amounts of this vitamins would hinder the metabolic process rather than speeding them up.

More important vitamins for women include the B-12. Just like certain other vitamins in the B-Complex, vitamin B-12 is also a great source for boosting metabolism in women. In addition to that, it helps in the production of red blood cells to aid excess blood loss or fight any infections. You can find Vitamin B in things like potatoes, beans, or meat.

Vitamin D

This is also an immensely important Vitamin when it comes to the health of women. According to some doctors, this vitamin works more like a hormone. To start off, it assists in moving calcium to the blood and making your bones stronger. A lack of calcium in blood eventually leads to weaker bones. Doctors especially recommend women to take Vitamin D supplements due to several health issues related to them.

Different types of antioxidants

Antioxidants are basically the substances that are responsible for protecting you from harmful free radicals that may be present in your body. When we say antioxidants, we are mainly referring to vitamins like A, C, and E. Furthermore the class also includes beta carotene and carotenoids. Antioxidants make sure that they get rid of the oxidizing agents that tear the cells apart.

They also reduce the chances of contracting several other diseases. In addition to all that, these multi-purpose antioxidants largely boost your immune system making it stronger and allowing you to enjoy a healthier body.

These are only some of the best vitamins for women. However, neither gender is restricted to any specific vitamin intake. In case of any deficiencies, both the men and women should increase their vitamin intake. A great way to do that is by taking multivitamin supplements that contain a combination of essential vitamins and minerals.

A Few Things You Need To Know About The Classic Digital Bp Monitor From Omron

The Omron Classic Digital Blood Pressure Monitor has earned a great reputation as the most demanding products in the medical category. For medical professionals, the name of Omron brand is quite new. It is a corporation of Japan founded in 1933 as an Omron Healthcare, mother company subsidiary. The company products have set different standards for the manufacturing of medical equipment with limited disappointment to its customers. Omron has a different model of blood pressure monitors as this company manufactures a different range of products including body fat measurement, digital thermometers and vibration technology units.

Design and measurement.

Presently, the most recent model does not make use any auscultation way of measuring your blood pressure. It means that these monitors do not need any stethoscope to measure systolic and diastolic pressure. Omron Digital Blood pressure monitors calculate the oscillometric value as they employ the variable for reading is a rate of blood passing vibration along the arteries. These monitors are easy to apply on hand, but the reading along units calculating blood pressure has increased the accuracy.

Reputation in the market

Another plus point regarding the uses of a bp monitor from omron is that it enables more than one users to record the measurement of their blood pressure up to one hundred meaning two hundred recording limit. Traditional monitors cannot store extended date because it is crucial to maintaining the record of measurement taking at different times and provide accurate statistics relevant to your health conditions. Omron monitors help in doing so. They keep a record of all reading so you may present to your physician and have a proper record of it. Another important thing to notice is that customers tried different blood pressure monitors have been surprised to know that how accurately the readings will match with the professional therapist measurement.

Many units of Omron blood pressure monitors are designed, validated and tested for the usage of the right hand. Therefore, by using Omron Elite Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor for example, on the right hand will give you the level of the same accuracy in measurement. However, in different cases, blood pressure difference between the left and the right hand is below 10mmHG. To get an accurate measurement, Omron suggests avoiding exercising, taking a bath, smoking and drinking before applying BP monitor. Also, Omron blood pressure monitor will give you accurate result if you set its cuff position accurately.

Lastly, the major benefit of using Omron blood pressure monitor over its market competitors is its five years warranty. It guarantee must speak of its confidence that experts have designed the devices by keeping in view the durability, precision and the quality.